The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued this sector at Rs.389,545 million in 2005 thus registering over 65% growth since 2000. The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued this sector at Rs.631,229 million in 2005 thus registering over 78% growth since 2000. The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued this sector at Rs.1,358,309 million in 2005 thus registering over 96% growth since 2000. The wholesale and retail trade is the largest sub-sector of the services. Its share in the overall services sector is estimated at 31.5 percent. The wholesale and retail trade sector is based on the margins taken by traders on the transaction of commodities traded. In 2012–13, this sector grew at 2.5 percent as compared to 1.7 percent in the last year.
Pakistan's service sector accounts for about 53.3% of GDP. Transport, storage, communications, finance, and insurance account for 24% of this sector, and wholesale and retail trade about 30%. Pakistan is trying to promote the information industry and other modern service industries through incentives such as long-term tax holidays.
The employer may in the event of a strike affecting either wholly or partially any section or department of the establishment close down, either wholly or partially, such section or department and any other section or department affected by such closing down. The fact of such closure shall be notified by notices put up on the notice board in the section or department concerned and in the time-keeper
Remove the unfair practices of the past in the organizations. AA is a means to make equal grounds for females, individuals with disabilities, underprivileged classes and minorities as a logical step towards equal employment.
On measures of income inequality, the country ranks slightly better than the median. In late 2006, the Central Board of Revenue estimated that there were almost 2.8 million income-tax payers in the country. However, by 2013, the number of taxpayers was drastically reduced to just 768,000 out of a total population of 190 million, meaning that only 0.57% of the population pay taxes
Pakistan’s female population is estimated to be 48.65 percent of the total, the majority of which lives in the country’s rural areas. In rural Pakistan opportunities for women are still lower than those the limited ones for their sisters in the urban centres. According to Labour Force Statistics (LFS) 2012-2013, of the estimated 180 million people, only 12.51 million Pakistani females of various ages are in employment of some sort.
We face big challenges to help the world’s poorest people and ensure that everyone sees benefits from economic growth. Data and research help us understand these challenges and set priorities, share knowledge of what works, and measure progress.
Save the Children has also worked on projects with the British Secretary of State for International Development to phase out child labour in Sialkot. The £750,000 donated by Britain will be spent on education and training, and also on setting up credit and savings schemes, in an attempt to provide alternatives to bonded labour.
Employed persons, including females, are grouped into four major categories of employment: employers, self-employed individuals, and unpaid family helpers and employees. However, the major distinction is between those in paid employment and in self-employment. Women employers were just 0.3 percent of the 0.8 percent in 2001-02, but in 2012-13 their ratio declined, and they remained just 0.1 percent of the total 1.3 percent. Which means that there was a declining trend in this status category and more women get out of it, probably pushed to lower categories. The self-employed were 15.7 percent and 33.6 percent, respectively, of the total 38.5 percent and 15 percent.
Similarly, as unpaid family helpers, females were 46.9 percent of the total of 20.8 percent in 2001-02. The number of unpaid family helpers followed a rising trend, reaching 60.5 percent of the total of 26.3 percent in 2012-13. This indicates that more females were pushed, or forced, into this category. This is a confirmation of the discrimination against female employees in the Pakistani job market, and of fewer opportunities available to them in white-collar jobs.
Pakistan International Airlines, the flagship airline of Pakistan's civil aviation industry, has turnover exceeding $25 billion in 2015. The government announced a new shipping policy in 2006 permitting banks and financial institutions to mortgage ships. Private sector airlines in Pakistan include Airblue, which serves the main cities within Pakistan in addition to destinations in the Gulf and Manchester in the United Kingdom. The other private carrier is Shaheen Air International whose network covers the main cities of Pakistan and the Gulf.
About This Statistic The statistic shows the distribution of employment in Pakistan by economic sector from 2004 to 2014. The source does not provide information for the year 2012. In 2011, 45.1 percent of the employees in Pakistan were active in the agricultural sector, 21.2 percent in industry and 33.7 percent in the service sector.
Finally, where on the one hand the courts have been playing a dynamic role in helping counter unfair labour practices, they are also likely to dismiss such a claim where the alleged allegation of unfair labour practice committed against the appellant on account of his lawful trade union activities, is difficult to discern (M. Shafi. vs. United Bank Limited 20116).
Employees’ educational level is a critical factor in any country. The graph represents a picture of the level of female education in Pakistan over the 11 years in discussion. LFS statistics show that from 36.9 percent in 2001-02, the figures rose to 48.1 percent in 2012-13. Trends of acquiring degree-level education amongst women remained significantly low. In 2012-13, only 3.8 percent of women received degree-level education, which is one of the most crucial causes for the low job opportunities for women and of low-status jobs for them.
The high population growth in the past few decades has ensured that a very large number of young people are now entering the labor market. Even though it is among the six most populous Asian nations. In the past, excessive red tape made firing from jobs, and consequently hiring, difficult. Significant progress in taxation and business reforms has ensured that many firms now are not compelled to operate in the underground economy.
A massive rehabilitation plan worth $1 billion over five years for Pakistan Railways has been announced by the government in 2005. A new rail link trial has been established from Islamabad to Istanbul, via the Iranian cities of Zahedan, Kerman and Tehran. It is expected to promote trade, tourism, especially for exports destined for Europe (as Turkey is part of Europe and Asia).
As of 2013, according to Macro Economic Insights, a research firm in Islamabad, the size of the Pakistani middle class is conservatively estimated at approximately 70 million, out of a total population of about 186 million. This represents 40% of the population of the country.
In Pakistan, workers are entitled to join a union without previous authorisation; however, they can become members of only one union at a time. If a worker joins more than one union at a time, his earlier membership will get cancelled. Trade unions and their involvement have also produced interesting case law. A recent case18 in this regard shows that courts are willing to recognise trade union membership as a right, which could also be formed in a non-profit organisation.
Termination of employment can involve resignation, dismissal or redundancy. The main law governing termination of employment in Pakistan is the Industrial and Commercial Employment (Standing Orders), 1968. Other relevant legislation in the field includes the Industrial Relations Act, 2012; Provincial Industrial Relations Acts; and the Shops and Establishments Ordinance, 1969. The Standing Orders Ordinance is applicable to all industrial and commercial establishments employing 20 or more workers now or on any day during the preceding 12 months. This ordinance may be extended to other classes of establishments (employing even less than 20 workers) by provincial governments through notification. An exemption to the above rule is granted in the case of smaller industrial establishments (employing between 20–49 workers) in the following four provisions. As discussed liberally under ‘General labour market and litigation trends’ above, a frequent issue of litigation is whether a person comes under the ambit of the ordinance to be able to benefit from these provisions. This has generated interesting case law reflecting on the nature of temporary and ad hoc workers and their rights. As per the law, for termination simplicity, a notice of termination is mandatory for permanent employees. A notice of one month must be served before severing the employment relationship, or payment of one month’s wages in lieu of notice may be provided (Section 12.1). A common cause of conflict and litigation is when the termination initiated by an employer is based on fair or unfair grounds. The law requires a written employment termination letter, stating explicitly the reasons for termination. This is applicable to both termination simplicity (under S.O. 12) and dismissal on the ground of misconduct (as the Standing Orders Ordinance S.O. 15). Precedent shows that some acceptable and valid reasons for employment termination (other than misconduct) can be “serious illness, inefficiency to perform the job, financial and economic needs of establishment”. Another heavily litigated ground is serious misconduct; provided that the employee is given an opportunity to respond to the charges levelled against him, this is sufficient enough reason for dismissal. As per the Standing Orders Ordinance, a worker whose employment has been terminated for any reason other than misconduct is entitled to a “severance pay or gratuity” or a provident fund (type of pension) for gratuity. However, in the case of NGOs (which are technically not commercial establishments), the application of these rules is still vague.
Pakistan is ranked 4th in terms of broadband Internet growth in the world, as the subscriber base of broadband Internet has been increasing rapidly. The rankings are released by Point Topic Global broadband analysis, a global research centre.
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Pakistan maintains foreign reserves with State Bank of Pakistan. The currency of the reserves was solely US dollar incurring speculated losses after the dollar prices fell during 2005, forcing the then Governor SBP Ishrat Hussain to step down. In the same year the SBP issued an official statement proclaiming diversification of reserves in currencies including Euro and Yen, withholding ratio of diversification.
The Pakistani labour market’s litigation matters pertain mainly to blue-collar issues, including termination, unfair dismissal, discrimination, as well as disputes involving trade unions and workers’ rights organisations. With the influx of multinational companies and NGOs in the region during the past two decades, we have seen courts give much more importance to what is agreed between the employer and the employee in the employment agreement.
For years, the matter of balancing Pakistan's supply against the demand for electricity has remained a largely unresolved matter. Pakistan faces a significant challenge in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity. While the government claims credit for overseeing a turnaround in the economy through a comprehensive recovery, it has just failed to oversee a similar improvement in the quality of the network for electricity supply. Most cities in Pakistan receive substantial sunlight throughout the year, which would suggest good conditions for investment in solar energy. If the rich people in Pakistan are shifted to solar energy that they should be forced to purchase solar panels, the shortfall can be controlled. this will make the economy boost again as before 2007. According to an econometric analysis published in Quality & Quantity by Mete Feridun of University of Greenwich and his colleague Muhammad Shahbaz, economic growth in Pakistan leads to electricity consumption but not vice versa.
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) entails discrimination and makes sure that work places are free from any kind of unlawful harassment and hence assists EEO groups to overcome any mishap or past or present disadvantage. In such an workplace all employees are valued and respected regardless of any caste,creed,color,race or an affiliation with any group or any physical disability.
In December 2014, the U.S. Department of Labor's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor reported 9 goods of which 6 are produced by child labourers in Pakistan. These include the making of bricks, carpets, glass bangles, leather and surgical instruments, as well as coal mining.
In addition to the high rate of female unemployment and the low job opportunities in major occupational groups, there is the factor of lower wages for female employees. Low female representation in professional jobs and senior positions is a result of social injustice, socio-economic conditions, low educational levels and persistent discrimination against women in our society. In 2001-02 women managers and officials at senior levels were only 1.9 percent, of the total 11.6 percent in the group. Of the total 11.5 percent, the number of women in the same group declined to 1.6 percent by 2012-13.
In this case, while seeking to invoke Ss. 54 & 57--- of the Contract Act (IX of 1872), S.27 and the Civil Procedure Code (V of 1908), O.XXXIX, Rr.1 & 2 in order to get an interim injunction for the grant of such a restrictive covenant on the ground that the defendant had executed an agreement undertaking not to work for a period of two years with any competitor of the plaintiff once he left the job, the plea raised by the plaintiff was that during employment with the plaintiff, the defendant had acquired confidential information. The court struck down the plea, stating that the restrictive covenant between the parties was too vague, generalised and hence void. The so-called Agreement did not specify what particular, specialised information had been divulged to the defendant, which he would be prevented to use directly or indirectly in employment with another employer. As the plaintiff had failed to particularise what confidential information was acquired by the defendant or to disclose what particular trade secret or secret formula or information was specially acquired by the defendant, other than in his normal course of employment, the restrictive covenant could not be enforced.
The most recent case which confirms the unwillingness of the courts to interfere with an employment agreement’s terms is Muhammad Rasheed vs. H. Ohashi Chief (Representation) Of Toyota Tsusho Corporation,1 where a grievance petition was dismissed on the basis that the appellant had already agreed in writing to the terms of the appointment letter, stating that the employee could be terminated by giving three months’ notice, or three months’ gross salary in lieu thereof. Also the fact that there were only seven (hence fewer than 20 employees) at the workplace, the operation of S.33 & 47---Industrial and Commercial Employment (Standing Orders) Ordinance (VI of 1968), S.1 (a) & S.0.12 which pertain to termination of service, was excluded.
In the first four years of the twenty-first century, Pakistan's KSE 100 Index was the best-performing stock market index in the world as declared by the international magazine "Business Week". The stock market capitalisation of listed companies in Pakistan was valued at $5,937 million in 2005 by the World Bank. But in 2008, after the General Elections, uncertain political environment, rising militancy along western borders of the country, and mounting inflation and current account deficits resulted in the steep decline of the Karachi Stock Exchange. As a result, the corporate sector of Pakistan has declined dramatically in recent times. However, the market bounced back strongly in 2009 and the trend continues in 2011. By 2014 the stock market burst into uncharted territories as the benchmark KSE 100 Index rose 907 points (3.1%) and shot past the 30,000-point barrier to close at a new record high, this came days after Moody's announced that it was upgrading the outlook of 5 major Pakistani banks from Negative to Stable, resulting in heavy buying in the banking sector. The rally was supported by heavy buying in the oil and gas and cement sectors. An article published in The Journal of Developing Areas of Tennessee State University in the US, economist Mete Feridun investigates the exchange rate movements in the Pakistani foreign exchange market using the market micro structure approach, shedding more lights on the dynamics of the Pakistani Stock Exchange.
Your appointment letter (employment contract) must state the nature of your employment (permanent or temporary, nature of duties i.e. job description, terms and conditions of service etc.
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We can see two different trends in Pakistan, as more multinationals and international NGOs set up base here. It would be fair to say that the employment law trends will also be affected by the incoming China-Pacific Economic Corridor (CPEC) investment, which will create new jobs and new types of contracts. The first trend is that of organisations preferring to treat workers as independent contractors, which allows them to outsource services and give their marketers, legal or business advisers, or even those dealing with social media and advertisements, recruiters, and even receptionists, work on an independent contract basis. This trend also includes contracts with cleaners and lower-ranking staff including cooks and repairmen. A key question faced by international NGOs is whether a gratuity, severance or any end-of-service or provident fund applies to them, as they are non-commercial undertakings/establishments. In this regard, one recent law allows a gratuity to be claimed by NGO employees working in the KPK region (see the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Industrial And Commercial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 2013) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Shops and Establishments Act, 2015. There is a grey area here with regard to the application of such an act to the rest of Pakistan as, while international NGOs consider it best practice to provide such benefits, the majority of the local NGOs here are not paying such benefits. From a legal perspective, and in any case, an employer is bound to offer only one retirement benefit out of pensions, gratuities and provident funding. The logic often provided is that NGOs should focus their limited funding on poor and deserving people, rather than offering such benefits to employees. Also, many local labour studies in Pakistan have shown that severance pay (particularly where multinationals or NGOs are involved) tends to tempt employees to abuse the benefit, as they are aware of the large amounts of money they will be getting when the contract is ended.